Throttling resource intensive requests

Sometimes when you’re writing a server, you’ve got a function that consumes a lot of memory while running, or some other resource, and you might be worrying that a sudden burst of requests could crash the server, since gRPC by default will just spawn another goroutine to handle any incoming requests, oblivious to the danger. In these situations, it can be useful to implement some custom request throttling. Here I’ll show an easy way to accomplish this with the use of a Go channel.

The Semaphore

I’m not going to introduce semaphores here, just show you how to implement one in Go and what they can be used for. Firstly, the implementation:

type Semaphore chan struct{}

func (s Semaphore) ReleaseSlot() {
	// Read to release a slot

func (s Semaphore) WaitForSlotAvailable(ctx context.Context) error {
	select {
	case <-ctx.Done():
		return ctx.Err()
	// Blocks while channel is full
	case s <- struct{}{}:

	return nil

This makes quite elegant use of the blocking nature of Go channels. I particularly like how this is also context aware, making it suitable for gRPC purposes.

Now lets say we have hungry method that we want to ensure doesn’t run too often in parallel. Here’s how we’d do that:

type MySrv struct {
    sem Semaphore

// NewSrv creates a server with slots being the maximum
// number of allowed parallel instances of HungryRPCMethod.
func NewSrv(slots int) &MySrv {
    return &MySrv{
        sem: make(Semaphore, slots)

func (m *MySrv) HungrygRPCMethod(ctx context.Context, in *myproto.Request) (*myproto.Reply, error) {
    if err := m.sem.WaitForSlotAvailable(ctx); err != nil {
        return nil, err
    defer m.sem.ReleaseSlot()

    ... // Go and do resource intensive things

That’s it! The semaphore will ensure no more than slots number of instance of HungryRPCMethod are running at any one time.

If you enjoyed this blog post, have any questions or input, don’t hesitate to contact me on @johanbrandhorst or under jbrandhorst on the Gophers Slack. I’d love to hear your thoughts!